Dr. Megan Ralf

How to Treat Eikenella corrodens Bacteria in Human Bites on Face, hands, and Legs (oral and non-oral infections)

Many are bitten by animals, and the bite can cause a minor wound, but it can be accompanied by serious complications. One of the most serious complications of bites is rabies, or rabies. So you should know what to do when bitten.

Studies have revealed that the human bite is the second most common bite in emergency rooms, and it may be more dangerous than the bite of some predators, and the reason for this is due to the types of bacteria and viruses present in the human mouth. The human mouth contains millions of microbes that coexist inside the mouth between the teeth and gum pockets, and turn into harmful microbes by transferring them to other tissues through biting.

The most common pathogens associated with bite wounds are Streptococcus species, Staphylococcus species, Pasteurella multocida, Capnocytophaga canimorsus and anaerobic bacteria.

Sporadically other pathogens are isolated from bite wounds. Human bites differ from animal bites by higher prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Eikenella corrodens.

Infected human bites yield a similar spectrum of bacteria except for Pasteurellae and C. canimorsus; instead human bites are frequently complicated by Eikenella corrodens. When does the Allergic Reaction Appear?

What is the definition of Eikenella corrodens?

Eikenella corrodens is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacillus that can cause severe invasive disease in humans.

E. corrodens is a rare pericarditis associated pathogen.

It is a fastidious, slow growing, human commensal bacillus, capable of acting as an opportunistic pathogen and causing abscesses in several anatomical sites, including the liver, lung, spleen, and submandibular region.

E. corrodens could independently cause serious infection in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts

Eikenella corrodens, a gram negative rod, was cultured in about one third of 24 patients with human bite wounds. The organism was sensitive to penicillin but not to methicillin. Clinically the infections in which Eikenella corrodens were found were not different from other infections.

Most of patients in this series required surgical drainage. Surgical treatment consists of thorough exploration, exteriorization and excision of devitalized tissues. Complications were more frequent in sutured wounds, or when surgical drainage was delayed.

Animal Bite wounds

Animal Bites human dogs cats rats mice bats

Different from Mosquito bites or any insect stings

Human bites: Children are more susceptible to this type of bite, as a result of playing with an aggressive child. The bite is semi-circular, or oval, and red. It may leave bruises or holes in the place of the teeth. These bites are often on the face, upper extremities, or trunk.

Dog bites: often happen to children, and the most famous places for bites are the head and neck. In adults, the places of bites are often in the arms and legs, especially the right hand. Injuries range from scrapes, deep open wounds, and lacerations, and dog bites rarely lead to death.

are frequently located on the face; injuries inflicted by dogs are most common, especially in children. Bacteriology of infected dog and cat bite wounds includes Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, viridans streptococci, Capnocytophaga canimorsus, and oral anaerobes.

Cats injury: is often to the upper extremities, such as: the arms, hands, or the face. Deep wounds are a concern; Because cats have long and sharp teeth; So it is possible for bacteria to reach the bone, or joint, leading to inflammation. If infection occurs, it causes redness, swelling, and severe pain as quickly as 12 to 24 hours after the bite.

Rodent bites: The most famous of these are mice, and bites occur at night, often on the hands or face.

Antibiotic therapy against E. corrodens bacteria

It is indicated both for infected bite wounds and fresh wounds considered at risk for infection.

E. corrodens infections of the head and neck occur most frequently in the tonsil even in hosts with normal immunity. Coexistence with Streptococcus milleri group bacteria and the use of ineffective antibiotics can be exacerbating factors. First-choice drugs for E. corrodens infections should be third-generation cephems, carbapenems, or new quinolones.

Amoxicillin-clavulanate (and other combinations of extended-spectrum penicillins with beta-lactamase inhibitors) and moxifloxacin offer the best in vitro coverage of the pathogenic flora. Initial wound management consisting in irrigation and debridement is at least equally important with antibiotics for prevention of infection.

Successful antibiotic therapy

It can be achieved with benzylpenicillin or ampicillin which are the drugs of choice. E. corrodens is a slow growing bacterium of low virulence, rarely isolated in current practice because of its unusual association with conditions such as human bites, infections of the oral cavity or immuno-suppressive therapy.

The lifetime risk of experiencing a bite wound, human or animal, is approximately 50%, and bite wounds account for approximately 1% of all visits to emergency departments. The majority of bite wounds are inflicted by dogs and cats.

The need for prophylaxis against systemic infectious complications

particularly tetanus, should also be evaluated. Primary surgical repair is the treatment of choice for most clinically uninfected facial bite wounds, whereas delayed closure should be reserved for certain high risk or already infected wounds.

It is important to be aware of the possibility of complicating infections following bite wounds, particularly after cat bites.

Clinicians must have a high index of suspicion when evaluating any hand injury and clenched fist injuries of the hand should be treated by early adequate surgical debridement followed by IV penicillin given until operative cultures confirm or deny contamination with Eikenella corrodens.

Treatment of infections associated with cat and dog bites

Phenoxymethyl penicillin should be the drug of choice in treatment of infections associated with cat and dog bites. However, in case of slow recovery or no improvement, simultaneous lymphadenopathy or pneumonia, S. aureus or Francisella tularensis should be suspected; ciprofloxacin is recommended. For human bite infections the recommend treatment is phenoxymethyl penicillin in combination with penicillinase-stable penicillin.

Avulsive injuries with significant tissue loss represent the most difficult cases for definitive management and are also those most likely to require hospitalization.

a prospective study with serial aerobic, anaerobic, and 10% CO(2) cultures is needed to confirm these findings. Lack of organization in management was the most notable finding. Inpatient therapy with intravenous antibiotics usually is required. Treatment should revolve around the mnemonic ‘ODD BITES’: open treatment; debridement; drugs (antibiotics); bloodwork (leukocyte count); irrigation; tetanus prophylaxis; exploration (including X-rays); and swab (for culture and sensitivity).

Contaminated injuries

It is estimated that 250,000 human bites occur each year in the United States, mostly in children. Up to 25% of these infections are contaminated, indicating that the most feared diseases are hepatitis B and tetanus.

Although these diseases do not occur with every bite, hepatitis and tetanus may occur, especially in infected bites.

Complications of infection

The bite may cause complications such as infection, permanent disability or even amputation in some cases. The reason to saliva, which contains millions of bacteria that can cause infection, in addition to the hand itself and the microbes it may contain.

Hand bite

Professor Stephen Kennedy of the University of Washington in Seattle stated that “hand bite” in particular needs medical care, and it is necessary to take antibiotics to reduce infection and complications that can occur in 30-50% of cases.

Regarding the bite of children, it is less dangerous than adults, because adults can have gingivitis and the mouth contains more bacteria.


Regarding the measures that should be taken if a person is bitten by a person and penetrates the skin, Stop the bleeding by applying pressure to it using a clean cloth, and then wash the wound with water, apply an antibiotic ointment to prevent infection, and then bandage the affected area with a clean bandage.

It is reported that, according to the medical website “health day”, there is new research that reviewed many previous studies, which revealed the need to receive medical care and go to the doctor in case of a bite that causes the penetration of the teeth embedded in the skin of the hand, whether from a human or an animal, in order to prevent possible complications. .

To care for a human bite that has caused a skin wound

  1. Stop bleeding by applying pressure to the wound with a clean, dry cloth
  2. Wash the wound thoroughly with soap and water
  3. Apply a clean bandage
  4. Cover the injured area with a medical non-adhesive bandage
  5. Seek urgent medical attention

Risk of exposure to rabies:
Everyone who has been bitten by animals such as: raccoon, fox, wolf bat, needs immediate medical attention, even if the injury is minor; Where these animals may be carriers of rabies.

First Aid for Dealing with Animal and Human Bites:

One of common at home remedies, Washing the wound with soap and water; This reduces the incidence of infection.
Provide emergency medical attention such as:

In minor wounds:

  1. Wash the wound carefully.
  2. Apply an antibiotic cream.
  3. Cover the wound with clean gauze.
  4. See the emergency immediately if the wound is red, pain, high body temperature, swelling appears, or if you suspect that the dog was rabid.

In deep wounds:

  1. apply pressure to clean gauze; to stop the bleeding.
  2. When you are unable to stop the bleeding, or if you feel very tired, you should call an ambulance.
  3. Go to the doctor as soon as possible; to examine the wound.

When to see a doctor:

  1. ​When there is severe bleeding that does not stop after pressing on it for 15 minutes, or a feeling of severe pain.
  2. When you notice a rise in body temperature, or when the wound is red, pain, or swelling appears.
  3. If the bite is deep, and it has been five years since the last tetanus vaccination.
  4. If the bite wound is large.
  5. If the patient suffers from diabetes, liver disease, cancer, a weak immune system.

Do Mosquito Insect Bites Transmit Virus B and C?

It is known that when exposed to a mosquito bite, it feeds on the blood of the person who has been bitten. It is logical that a very important question arises in the minds of citizens, which is can a mosquito transmit hepatitis C or other hepatitis viruses when it bites an infected person and then bites another person?

And preventive medicine experts at the Ministry of Health confirm that: fortunately, the mosquito does not transmit the C virus through its bites, as well as insects, for the following reasons.

  1. Mosquitoes inject people with their own saliva, not blood. Thus induce allergic skeeter syndrome
  2. It is known that Virus B and Virus C infections are transmitted through exposure to blood only.
  3. When exposed to mosquito insect bites, the unique biological structure of its needle consists of two separate channels, where the first channel works to inject the skin with mosquito saliva, which contains many substances that facilitate the penetration of the skin, while the second channel of the mosquito needle is through which blood is sucked from the victim
  4. The channel that sucks the victim’s blood has valves that only allow the blood to pass in one direction from the victim to the mosquito’s stomach and does not allow the opposite, that is, blood from the mosquito to enter the victim.
  5. Hepatitis C and B viruses are very sensitive viruses that depend on selecting suitable hosts to live in their livers, and since mosquitoes do not have a liver, these viruses cannot survive for long periods inside the body of the mosquito.
  6. Entomologists found that mosquitoes rarely bite two people in a row at the same time. After they bite a person and suck their meal of blood, they fly away until they digest that meal and then return to feeding.
  7. Mosquitoes transmit malaria and yellow fever, and they are transmitted through their saliva and not through blood.

Other Diseases transmitted by Mosquitoes:

We must be concerned about the diseases transmitted by mosquitoes annually, every year more than a million people die and thousands are injured due to the bite of this annoying insect, according to a website report. deter outdoors.”

Review the most important diseases carried by mosquitoes and transmitted to humans through their bite:


It is a disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite, which mosquitoes transmit to red blood cells by stinging the patient. The parasite destroys red blood cells and multiplies in the human body.

Fever and chills are one of the symptoms of the disease, in addition to vomiting, headache, sweating and coughing.

Dengue fever

Transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, symptoms range from muscle and joint pain to headache and fever, and may be fatal in advanced stages. Although the vaccine exists, it is subject to some limitations, as it may provoke fatal reactions from the body.

Yellow fever

Several days after the mosquito bite, the victim suffers from fever, headache, vomiting, dizziness, constipation, severe and persistent muscle pain, and if not treated, it may lead to meningitis or the destruction of vital organs.

Chikungunya disease

This virus spreads in Africa, Asia and the Indian subcontinent, but the mosquitoes that transmit the disease have moved in recent decades to Europe and the Americas.

It causes a sudden onset of fever with severe joint pain that often disables a person greatly, in addition to muscle pain, rash and headache.

Zika virus

Zika virus infection is transmitted primarily by the bite of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, especially Aedes aegypti in tropical and subtropical regions.

The incubation period for Zika virus disease (the time from exposure to symptoms) is estimated to range from 3 to 14 days. Most people infected with Zika virus have no symptoms, and symptoms are usually mild and include fever, rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise, and headache, and usually last for two to seven days.

The Aedes mosquito usually bites humans in broad daylight and peaks in the early morning and late afternoon/early evening hours. It is the same mosquito that transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.

So if you feel any of these symptoms, you should go to the doctor immediately.

Do Mosquitoes Remember The Smell of Repellents? does a mosquito remember the killer?

Mosquitoes distinguish ‘dangerous’ people
Despite their small size, these mischievous flying insects seem to be more intelligent than we might expect.

According to a recent study published by the newspaper “Current Biology”, a mosquito that is exposed to an attempt to kill a person, distinguishes the smell of this person and does not attack him again, because it feels that it is a threat to its life.

Previous studies had indicated that mosquitoes have certain preferences when choosing their victims, but the recent study said that these intelligent insects can change their preferences and avoid “dangerous people”.

The researchers came to their discovery by using a machine that simulates the hand movements in which a person tries to catch mosquitoes, while spreading the smell of mice near this machine.

Experimentally, the researchers discovered that mosquitoes associate this life-threatening machine with the smell of mice, and that the insects “learned” to stay away from mice.

But the experiment confirmed that mosquitoes’ association between danger and smell occurs only if the source of the danger to the insects is mammals (mice in this case).

“Once mosquitoes associate certain odors with solitary behaviour, their response to that odor is similar to their response to the most effective repellents,” study co-author biologist Jeff Revell said in a statement.

“Mosquitoes remember these smells for days,” Revell added.

Scientists have succeeded in drawing the first complete map of mosquito immune cells, and found a new type of cell that could have a role in the harmful insect’s ability to deal with malaria.

The researchers said the findings, published in the journal “Science”, could help scientists discover new ways to prevent mosquitoes from spreading the malaria parasite to humans, and to break the chain of transmission.

Malaria affects more than 200 million people worldwide and killed an estimated 405,000 people in 2018, mostly infants and children under the age of five.

Malaria is a disease caused by Plasmodium parasites transmitted by the bites of female Anopheles mosquitoes.

Oliver Belker, a molecular infection expert at Sweden’s IMEA University who co-led the study, said: “We discovered a rare type of important new cell, which we called (megasite), which can be a factor in the immune priming, and it appears that it leads to more Immune responses to the Plasmodium parasite.

Belcker’s team explained in the study that the mosquito’s immune system controls how the insect transmits parasites or viruses, but so far, scientists know little about the types of cells.

The team studied the Anopheles gambiae mosquito, which carries malaria, and the Aedes aegypti mosquito, which carries viruses that cause other infectious diseases to humans, such as “dengue fever”, “chikungunya” and “Zika”.

The team analyzed more than 8,500 individual immune cells to see which genes were activated in each cell, and to identify molecular markers for each cell type.

“Mosquitoes seem to have good immunity against parasites such as malaria,” said Sarah Tishman, an expert at Britain’s Wellcome Sanger Institute, who co-authored the study.

10 Best Bull Gnat Bites Treatment with Identification Pics

How to identify the bull gnats and bull gnat bites? and what is the best treatment available for bull gnats bites?

What Are Bull Gnats?

A kind of hunchbacked dark body flies that belongs to the family “Simuliidae”. Yes, they commonly known with other names such as Black flies and Buffalo Gnats. Others may mistaken bull nats with sand gnats.

A bull gnat has male and female and only female who needs blood to lay eggs, while males usually feed on nectar.

Bull gnats or buffalo gnat are of biting midges, gnats that can bite if you were asking, can gnats bite?

Who’s under risk?

Domestic animals, poultry, exotic birds and human people.

What Do Bull Gnats Look Like?

Here’s how to identify bull gnats from the appearance and specs of the insect body, and habitats also can help in the identification of the pests.

humpbacked appearance of bull buffalo gnats
Humpbacked appearance of bull buffalo gnats, Close-up image
  • Appearance: Humpbacked, hence its name.
  • Size: Up to one-eighth of an inch long
  • Colors: Dark and Black.
  • Biting mouthparts: twin cutters like scissors to cut into skin then lap the blood up.
  • Larvae appearance: worm-like, less than half an inch long when hatching from the egg, bull gnat larvae looks like an hourglass, mouthparts looks like fan, and feed on bacteria.
  • Season of biting: typically bull gnats start biting mammals, humans and birds in late spring and early summer.
  • Active time to bite: on a calm day, bull gnats active just after sunrise and before sunset.
  • Globally Infested Areas: All the world
  • Habitat: Bull gnat are aquatic insects, it means they prefer clean, fast-running water, find bull gnats near river rapids, waterfalls, however water residues around you is enough to attract them.
  • What attracts them? Carbon dioxide exhaled by animals and humans, perspiration or sweating, perfumes and dark moving objects.

What Do Bull Gnat Bites Look Like?

Now, how to identify bites from bull gnats to know them and treat them properly, also you can be able to distinguish bull gnat bites from other bug bites.

Stages of wound healing after buffalo gnat bites (magnified, close up pics)
Stages of wound healing after buffalo gnat bites (magnified, close up pics)
  • Affected area size: 2 to 5 mm
  • Swelling size: up to 10 mm
  • Center of the bite: appear and obvious
  • Life threatening: For birds, poultry, pets, not for humans
  • Transmit disease to humans: No, but some deaths reported outside USA.
  • Bite through: can’t because they don’t bite with needles.

Bull Gnat Bite Symptoms

  • Little bleeding patches (but obvious) looks like tiny minor cuts and scrapes.
  • Painful itching with tingling sensation.
  • Medium localized swelling,
  • Low to medium allergic reaction.
  • Local redness.
  • Annoyance and discomfort when buzzing inside noses, mouths and ears.

Bleeding after bull bites are the best prove that the biting pest is a bull gnat that’s due to their method of biting by cutting the skin and leave wound-like bites.

Don’t miss this explanation: gnat bites pictures

Available treatment options for Bull Gnat Bites

The First Aids for bull gnat bites are:

  1. Do’t scratch the bite site and bearing the pain as possible, scratching will widening the wound and prone it to bacteria infection.
  2. The bull gnat bites leave a small superficial cut that doesn’t reach the blood stream, although you must clean the bite immediately using antiseptics or just rinse with running water.
  3. Don’t use irritants to heal bull gnat bites such as soap, hydrogen peroxide or iodine.
  4. If the bull gnat left a dirt above the bite it using a tweezers cleaned with alcohol or anything like that.
  5. Cover the bite by applying a clean bandage or rolled gauze, it can work to let the bull gnat bite heal on its own in addition to protection against germs.
  6. For prolonged bites that get infected and show balloon cells or puss sacks, get a tetanus shot and use antibiotics from nearby pharmacy, call the doctor if you don’t know how or just leave a reply to help you.

How To get Rid Of Bull Gnats?

  • Avoid commonly infested areas.
  • Don’t be outside at active times of bull nat swarms.
  • When you in forest, jungle, seashore garden or patio, you may keep flies off the head and neck by wear long-sleeved shirts, long pants.
  • Netting with a special protecting head like construction hard-hats.
  • Prevent bull gnas from landing on the fly net by smear with petroleum jelly, or oil.
  • Stop bull gnats in patio and garden by operating large fans, yes they work to deter bull knats.
  • On window screens use very fine mesh netting because the bull gnats can pass through.

What Do not Work To Repel and Kill Bull Gnats?

Ineffective methods to repel bull nats include:

  • DEET-containing repellents: unlikely, they can attract them.
  • Using Permethrin-containing repellents are limited on protection clothing and can’t used widely to deter bull nats, despite of the effectiveness on mosquitoes.
  • Pesticides, the pests killing chemicals, they work to kill bull gnat but only liquid pesticides sprinkled on the gnat landing surfaces.
  • Larvicides containing “Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti)” only work if you already know where the bull gnat larvae, and the effective doses, I think it’s for experts as well as they usually use it for mosquito larvae control.
  • Fogging the ultra-low volume (ULV) treatments work temporarily against bull gnats.
  • Home remedies such as vanilla extract doesn’t reliably work against bull gnats.


Bull Gnats are the same of Buffalo gnats and black flies, they prevented by getting away from their areas and wear protective clothing, bull nat bites looks like wound and treatment depend on severity, simple water and antiseptic can work and antibiotics for inflamed bites.

What Do Gnat Bites Look Like? With HD Gnat Pictures

After get bitten, typically, a gnat bite on human skin looks like a small wounds; or tiny simple pinprick; or narrow red spot locally at the site of the bite along with immediate swelling around the center of the bite, wound-like bites of gnats are due to using their mouth parts that look like scissors to cut our skin and suck blood.

Swelling will be seen directly after you feel the bite. if you scratch hard the gnat bite will be infected, thus it may swell larger and contain pus, infected gnat bites looks like a sac filled of pus or water.

Almost gnat species that do bite leave the same bite shape and size, some nats are predacious than others, and thus show more nasty bites, but this is another story, be tuned. Biting gnats Pictures

Gnats don’t leave any mouth-parts after biting like bees do, bees leave its stinger immersed in the skin.

Just look to the images below and compare with the bites your received to know if it was a gnat bite or another insect bite, of course images will not match 100% but at least they will help you identify the looking of knat bites well.

Here’s what do swollen gnat bites look like

Here’s what do infected gnat bites look like

Infection after gnat bites are common, as biting gnat species leave a wound that is prone to microbial invasion, it looks like balloon or blisters which formed due to bacterial infection after gnat bites.

Hidden and Unnoticed Gnat Bites

Gnats are smaller that they can bite and hide, you can’t know what bit your skin, some gnats on the rear side resembles mosquito bites, some bites on the legs looks like fleas bites, you need a good attention next time to notice the tiny fliers that bite and don’t see them. Look like small patches of blood due to opening of the skin by the gnats mouth.

Gnat Bites on Equine Skin

Biting gnats can bite human and livestock animals as well, however, stable gnats can do dangerous wounds after biting, thus they cause harmful anemia to the equine and other farm animals like cows and broilers.

gnat bites on a horse skin


If you feel a sharp painful sting on scruff of your neck; around ears; on exposed arm or leg, and the feeling sounds like a sharp cut of a razor blade, it’s a gnat bite. so that, identifying such small flyer depends on both the shape of its bite and the strong feeling, thus you can differentiate gnat bites from other insect bites.

Do Gnats Bite Human People, Dogs, and Cats or They Donot Bite?

Like Mosquitoes do, some of gnats live on the warm-blooded animals and human-being, for the seeking to the purposes of feeding and laying eggs, the typical answer is YES, some of gnats do bite human skin and dogs. scientists call them “Biting Gnats” or “Biting Midges”, while other gnats prefer to get their food from flowers like bees do. Getting away from the gnats areas is the best way to stop gnat bites.

Nasty swarms of gnats on a hand and near of eyes
Nasty swarms of gnats on a hand and near of eyes

Gnats are those small or tiny insects the look like dust on the sky especially close to dawn time or during sunset, farmers and people near of coasts know them better than people live on large cities.

Farmers see them land on and take off the water lakes and streams, however, if you have an outdoor yard you probably notice swarms like if you sprinkled salt on the page of the sky.

Adult humans may not feel when a gnat bites them because they may get immunized over the time against repeated bites from biting midges, scientifically, because their body learned how to ignore them.

Who get a vacation near sea coasts will bothered with cutting pierces of those pesky little creatures.

Do Gnats Bite Dogs?

Dogs live outside the house and near the preferable gnats areas will probably get bitten by hungry biting gnats every moment. Off course, gnats can bite dogs through the hair of the dog, which you can’t notice unless your puppy become ill.

The reason behind gnat bites on dogs is the food, the blood is the main meal of some nasty gnats to grow their eggs. Gnats don’t bite because they are scared or felt a danger.

Sleeping dogs inside house may be immune to get bitten by such hungry insects.

A puppy and a cat suffering from a biting gnat
A puppy and a cat suffering from a biting gnat

Do Fungus Gnats Bite Dogs?

Fungus gnats and larvae don’t need blood, they aim on the roots and leaves of houseplants and seedlings to get food, so that, No, Fungus gnats do not bite human, dogs, or cats. However fungus gnat don’t proven to be vectors to transmit diseases to humans or animals.

However, dogs inside the bedroom can be bitten by biting gnats that the dog brought gnats eggs within the hair, from the fact that gnats can lay eggs deep inside the hairy dogs and cats, and thus the gnat bites become chronic illness for longer time.


Puppies, kittens, children, and even adult humans and animals are prune to gnat bites if they still standing inside the gnat areas, however, it’s a scientific fact that not all of gnats have to bite people or animals.

To know if do fruit gnats bite or they don’t, just follow us on blog, Facebook, or Youtube.

Later, list of gnats that do bite? and how to treat gnat bites perfectly.